1.)What is the Difference Between Weather and Climate?

Weather is the day-to-day state of the atmosphere, and its short-term (minutes to weeks) variation. Popularly, weather is thought of as the combination of temperature, humidity, precipitation, cloudiness, visibility, and wind. We talk about the weather in terms of "What will it be like today?", "How hot is it right now?", and "When will that storm hit our section of the country?"
Climate is defined as statistical weather information that describes the variation of weather at a given place for a specified interval. In popular usage, it represents the synthesis of weather; more formally it is the weather of a locality averaged over some period (usually 30 years) plus statistics of weather extremes.
We talk about climate change in terms of years, decades or even centuries. Scientists study climate to look for trends or cycles of variability (such as the changes in wind patterns, ocean surface temperatures and precipitation over the equatorial Pacific that result in El Niño and La Niña), and also to place cycles or other phenomena into the bigger picture of possible longer term or more permanent climate changes.

2.)Major Factors that Determine Climate:
The climate of any region is largely determined by four geographic aspects:
Latitude, distance from the sea, direction of the prevailing winds and elevation.
external image climate-varition-factors.gif
external image climate-varition-factors.gif

Climate variation factors
Other factors influence the global climate system: atmosphere, oceans, ice, land and the various forms of life.

3.)Wind Patterns

Figure 1. This map shows the global surface current system under average conditions for winter months in the Northern Hemisphere. Warm currents are shown as solid red arrows, and cold currents as dashed blue arrows.
Figure 1. This map shows the global surface current system under average conditions for winter months in the Northern Hemisphere. Warm currents are shown as solid red arrows, and cold currents as dashed blue arrows.
|| || Figure 1. This map shows the global surface current system under average conditions for winter months in the Northern Hemisphere. Warm currents are shown as solid red arrows, and cold currents as dashed blue arrows. ||

Deciduous Forest
The mid-latitude deciduous forest biome is located between the polar regions and the tropics. Mid-latitude deciduous forests have both a warm and a cold season.
"Deciduous" means to fall off, or shed, seasonally. Just as the name implies, these deciduous trees shed their leaves each fall. Lying on the forest floor, the leaves decay. As the leaves decompose, the nutrients contained in the leaves are absorbed by the soil. For this reason, the soils of this biome tend to be very fertile. Because this biome has fertile soil and a long, 5 to 6 month, growing season, many deciduous forests have been converted into agricultural regions.

The defining characteristic of a desert is that it is dry. Depending on its geographical location, the annual precipitation in a desert varies from half an inch to as much as 15 inches. Rainfall is usually very localized.
Short grasses, sagebrush, creosote bushes, and cacti are just a few of the plants that can be found in the desert. Plant abundance and variety are determined by the geographic location of the desert. Although short grasses can be found in nearly all desert locations, the saguaro cactus is unique to the Sonoran Desert, and the spiniflex is associated with the Australian Desert.

The taiga biome is found in the northern hemisphere close to the polar region. This cold biome (see climograph) stretches across the northern portions of North America, Europe, and Asia. Large population centers, such as Moscow and Toronto, can be found in the southern portion of this biome, but the northern portion is relatively unpopulated.
Because the climate of the taiga is very cold, there is not a large variety of plant life. The most common type of tree found in the taiga is the conifer--trees that have cones. Four kinds of conifers are common in the taiga. Three of the common conifers are evergreens; spruce, fir, and pine. The fourth common conifer is the tamarack, or larch, a deciduous tree. Under certain conditions, broadleaf trees, such as birch and aspen, are able to survive the harsh climate of the taiga

Tropical Rainforest
The tropical rainforest is a hot, moist biome found near Earth's equator. The world's largest tropical rainforests are in South America, Africa, and Southeast Asia. Tropical rainforests receive from 60 to 160 inches of precipitation that is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year. The combination of constant warmth and abundant moisture makes the tropical rainforest a suitable environment for many plants and animals. Tropical rainforests contain the greatest biodiversity in the world. Over 15 million species of plants and animalsAlthough tropical rainforests receive 12 hours of sunlight daily, less than 2% of that sunlight ever reaches the ground. The tropical rainforest has dense vegetation, often forming three different layers--the canopy, the understory, and the ground layer. Frequently, people think of the tropical rainforest as a "jungle" where plant growth is dense even at ground level. However, the canopy created by the tall trees (100-120 feet) and the understory, prevents sunlight from reaching the ground. The soil is, therefore, always shaded, and very little vegetation is able to survive at ground level.
Plant survival in a tropical rainforest depends on the plant's ability to tolerate constant shade or to adapt strategies to reach sunlight. Fungus is a good example of a plant that flourishes in warm, dark places created by the forest canopy and understory.

Tropical Savannah
The tropical savanna is a biome characterized by tall grasses and occasional trees. Large regions of tropical savanna extend through the nations of Botswana, Namibia, and Kenya in Africa, southern Brazil, India, and Australia. Surprisingly, the Everglades of southern Florida in North America is also a tropical savanna.
Grasses are the dominant plant life in the savanna. A wide variety of grasses grow in savannas, but different varieties are found in different savannas. Some grasses grow 6 to 9 feet tall.

Trees growing alone or in small clusters are also part of the savanna biome. In fact, without the trees, the savanna biome would be considered a prairie. The variety of trees in a particular savanna is dependent upon the geographic location of the savanna. The acacia and baobab trees are common in African savannas.

5.)Layers of the atmosphere
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STOP HERE Air pollution control

Because air pollution is visible and undesirable, most developed countries have had 50 years or more of regulations aimed at controlling this form of environmental degradation. In many cases, these regulations have had encouragingly positive effects. While urban air quality rarely matches that of pristine wilderness areas, air pollution in most of the more prosperous regions of North America, Western Europe, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand has been curtailed in recent years. In the United States, for example, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reports that the number of days on which urban air is considered hazardous in the largest cities has decreased 93% over the past 20 years. Of the 97 metropolitan areas that failed to meet clean air standards in the 1980s, nearly half had reached compliance by the early 1990s.
Perhaps the most striking success in controlling air pollution is urban lead. Banning of leaded gasoline in the United States in 1970 resulted in a 98% decrease in atmospheric concentrations of this toxic metal. Similarly, particulate materials have decreased in urban air nearly 80% since the passage of the U.S. Clean Air Act, while sulfur dioxides, carbon monoxide, and ozone are down by nearly one-third.

The situation is not as encouraging in some other countries. The major metropolitan areas of developing countries often have highly elevated levels of air pollution. Rapid population growth, unregulated industrialization, local geography, and lack of enforcement have compounded the air pollution problem in cities such as Mexico City. In this city, pollution levels usually exceed World Health Organization (WHO) standards 350 days per year. More than half of all children in the city have lead levels in their blood sufficient to lower intelligence and retard development. The more than 5,500 metric tons of air pollutants released in Mexico City each day from the thousands of industries and millions of motor vehicles are trapped close to the surface by the mountains ringing the city.

Sources of Indoor Pollution

Sources of indoor pollution
Sources of indoor pollution

Sources of indoor pollution

After being released into the atmosphere, sulfur dioxide can either be deposited on the Earth's surface in the form of dry deposition or it can undergo the following reactions to produce acids that are incorporated into the products of wet deposition (Figure 8h-2):

SO2 + H2O »»» H2SO3 H2SO3 + 1/2O2 »»» H2SO4

external image acid_deposition.jpg
external image acid_deposition.jpg

Several processes can result in the formation of acid deposition. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) released into the atmosphere from a variety of sources call fall to the ground simply as dry deposition. This dry deposition can then be converted into acids when these deposited chemicals meet water. Most wet acid deposition forms when nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are converted to nitric acid (HNO3) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) through oxidation and dissolution. Wet deposition can also form when ammonia gas (NH3) from natural sources is converted into ammonium (NH4).

Some 95% of the elevated levels of nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere are the result of human activities. The remaining 5% comes from several natural processes. The major sources of nitrogen oxides include:

  • Combustion of oil, coal, and gas.
  • Bacterial action in soil.
  • Forest fires.
  • Volcanic action.
  • Lightning.

Acids of nitrogen form as a result of the following atmospheric chemical reactions (see Figure 8h-2 above):

NO + 1/2O2 »»» NO2 2NO2 + H2O »»» HNO2 + HNO3 NO2 + OH »»» HNO3

Finally, the concentrations of both nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxides are much lower than atmospheric carbon dioxide which is mainly responsible for making natural rainwater slightly acidic. However, these gases are much more soluble than carbon dioxide and therefore have a much greater effect on the pH of the precipitation.

What Is Smog?

The term smog was first coined during the 1950s when it was used to describe a mixture of smoke and fog experienced in London. Major cities along the west coast of America were also experiencing a different type of air pollution.
Smog occurs when emissions from industry, motor vehicles, incinerators, open burning and other sources accumulate under certain climatic conditions. There are two types of smog: summer (the type of smog first experienced in America) and winter (the one first noticed in London).

Autumn and winter smog (particles)

During the cooler months (April to September), Melbourne is more affected by the accumulation of fine particles, which come from motor vehicle emissions, wood smoke, other combustion processes and photochemical processes in the air.
Temperature inversions in winter mean that warm air higher in the atmosphere traps pollutants in the layer of cold air closer to the ground. These inversions can last for several days and cause 'scummy' brown hazed horizons until dispersed by wind or rain.
The fine particles scatter sunlight, reduce visibility, soil buildings and fabrics and provoke existing respiratory diseases and other health problems.

Photochemical or summer smog

In the warmer months (October to March), photochemical smog (summer smog) is caused by the action of sunlight on a mixture of hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen. This smog contains secondary pollutants such as ozone, aldehydes and fine particles.
Sometimes winds cause the pollutants to be carried clockwise around the Port Phillip region. As the smog levels build, polluted air can be trapped and recirculate for days in what is known as the Melbourne Eddy.
This means that in the evening you can end up breathing exhaust fumes emitted by your car that morning.


there's one thing that all sides of the climate debate can agree on, it's that climate has changed naturally in the past. Long before industrial times, the planet underwent many warming and cooling periods. This has led some to conclude that if global temperatures changed naturally in the past, long before SUVs and plasma TVs, nature must be the cause of current global warming. This conclusion is the opposite of peer-reviewed science has found.
Our climate is governed by the following principle: when you add more heat to our climate, global temperatures rise. Conversely, when the climate loses heat, temperatures fall. Say the planet is in positive energy imbalance. More energy is coming in than radiating back out to space. This is known as radiative forcing, the change in net energy flow at the top of the atmosphere. When the Earth experiences positive radiative forcing, our climate accumulates heat and global temperature rises (not monotonically, of course, internal variability will add noise to the signal).
How much does temperature change for a given radiative forcing? This is determined by the planet's climate sensitivity. The more sensitive our climate, the greater the change in temperature. The most common way of describing climate sensitivity is the change in global temperature if atmospheric CO2 is doubled. What does this mean? The amount of energy absorbed by CO2 can be calculated using line-by-line radiative transfer codes. These results have been experimentally confirmed by satellite and surface measurements. The radiative forcing from a doubling of CO2 is 3.7 Watts per square metre (W/m2) (IPCC AR4 Section 2.3.1).
So when we talk about climate sensitivity to doubled CO2, we're talking about the change in global temperatures from a radiative forcing of 3.7 Wm-2. This forcing doesn't necessarily have to come from CO2. It can come from any factor that causes an energy imbalance.
How much does it warm if CO2 is doubled? If we lived in a climate with no feedbacks, global temperatures would rise 1.2°C (Lorius 1990). However, our climate has feedbacks, both positive and negative. The strongest positive feedback is water vapour. As temperature rises, so too does the amount of water vapour in the atmosphere. However, water vapour is a greenhouse gas which causes more warming which leads to more water vapour and so on. There are also negative feedbacks - more water vapour causes more clouds which can have both a cooling and warming effect.


Some similarities between global warming and ozone depletion are that they both have to do with our ozone layer and atmosphere. Both of them are happening because humans put too many chemicals into our atmosphere and both of them have to do with the warming of the earth, and the sun's rays. A few of the differences between global warming and ozone depletion are that global warming has to do with the trapping of heat and warming earth causing dangerous climate change. On the contrary ozone depletion's effects have to do more with humans and bodily diseases, such as skin cancer, cataracts and possibly mutations.

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1. Three people who have made a dramatic impact on the environmental laws or policies:
a. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Nixon#First_term
(go to Initiatives within the Federal Government)
b. http://www.rachelcarson.org/
(general info about Rachel Carson's influence)
c. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ralph_Nader#Ecology

2. Name one law that you think has been the most important in the history of
environmental politics in the U.S., for each of the categories listed below
(do not use any law twice). Describe each law, give the date it was
passed and the impact it has made since it was passed.
a. Water health
b. Air health

c. Soil health
d. Protection from toxic chemicals
e. Biodiversity

3. Contrast the philosophies of conservation and preservation and name a
proponent of each.
Conservation: http://www.ni-environment.gov.uk/built-home/information/conservation_philosophy.htm
National Park Service compare and contrast: http://www.nps.gov/history/history/hisnps/NPSThinking/nps-oah.htm

4. In what parts of the world has biodiversity loss been greatest and the
least? Describe why.

5. Describe the difference between local, commercial, ecological, and
biological extinction. What is the difference between “endangered” and


6. Name five reasons to limit extinction. Describe five ways to slow
extinction rates.

7. List five ways non-native species have an advantage over the native
organisms in an area.

8. How do biological corridors and the size and placement of biological
reserves affect extinction and breeding?

9. Name the four major divisions of the United States government that
manage public land. Explain how the management policies differ for each
branch of service.

10. Describe how trees can be harvested sustainably.

11. Describe six problems facing publicly owned lands in the United States
and abroad.

12. Name three aquatic species that are threatened or endangered. Explain
the characteristics that make it difficult for these species to maintain
adequate populations.

13. Explain how international policies are important when dealing with issues
of joint interest such as oceans, the atmosphere or species biodiversity.

14. Make a compare-and-contrast chart that points out how urban and rural
populations differ in the following areas:
a. Energy and resources use.
b. Transportation demand.
c. Wealth.
d. Pollution concentration.
e. How urban and rural populations differ in developed and developing

15. Name and describe five modes of urban transportation. Rank the five
modes of transportation in order of environmental impact.

16. List five ways to reduce pollution and increase biodiversity in urban areas.

17. Describe four examples of how economics control environmental
decisions and practices.

18. Describe four examples of how politics control environmental decisions
and practices.

19. What do you think is the most effective way a person who is [10 years old,
20 years old, 40 years old, 60 years old] can influence environmental
changes in the world? Give the most effective action a person can take at
each of those ages to affect change.
10: http://www.ivillage.com/green/family/0,,bmbzlqpb,00.html
20: http://www.online-college-reviews.com/index.php/101-ways-to-go-green-in-college/
40/60: http://realestate.msn.com/article.aspx?cp-documentid=13107876
general: http://planetgreen.discovery.com/work-connect/fortyways-gogreen-earth-day.html

20. Give an example of a grassroots organization and how the organization
has influenced environmental policy.
AND http://www.sierraclub.org/welcome/

21. How do you think a person’s environmental worldview would change in the
following situations:
a. As the person ages from youth to adulthood and old age.
b. If a person is born in a poor family in a poor country and suddenly
becomes wealthy.
c. If a person is born in a wealthy family in a wealthy country and
becomes poor in that wealthy country.
d. As a person acquires an education based in biology, chemistry,
ecology and other sciences.

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Question 11
Ice Age Extinctions.
Sabre-toothed cat.
Sabre-toothed cat.

Sabre-toothed cat.

Mass Extinction
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external image big-impact-mass-extinction-10.jpg

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external image Biot681PhotoA.jpg

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external image scientificmethod.jpg

Question 1

http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/6e.html - Describe the first and second thermodynamics, then explain how each pertains to environmental science?








How Much Energy Is lost at each trophic level? Where does the energy go?

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external image 180px-The_Sun.jpg

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Phosphorous Cycle - Diagram
Phosphorous Cycle - Diagram

Phosphorous Cycle - Diagram

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Rock Cycle


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Carbon Cycle
Nutrient Cycle Levels

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external image 300px-Cellularrespiration.JPG

Biogeochemical Cycles
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File:AYool GLODAP del pH.png

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Population Dynamics:

carrying capacity of a biological species in an environment is the population size of the species that the environment can sustain indefinitely, given the food, habitat, water and other necessities available in the environment. For the human population, more complex variables such as sanitation and medical care are sometimes considered as part of the necessary establishment.

introduced, alien, exotic, non-indigenous, or non-native species, or simply an introduction, is a species living outside its native distributional range, which has arrived there by human activity, either deliberate or accidental. Some introduced species are damaging to the ecosystem they are introduced into, others negatively affect agriculture and other human uses of natural resources, or impact on the health of animals and humans. A list of introduced species is given in a separate article. Introduced species and their effects on natural environments is a controversial subject and one that has gained much scrutiny by scientists, governments, farmers and others.

keystone species is a species that has a disproportionate effect on its environment relative to its biomass.[1] Such species affect many other organisms in an ecosystem and help to determine the types and numbers of various other species in a community.

indicator species is any biological species that defines a trait or characteristic of the environment. For example, a species may delineate an ecoregion or indicate an environmental condition such as a disease outbreak, pollution, species competition or climate change. Indicator species can be among the most sensitive species in a region, and sometimes act as an early warning to monitoring biologists.


K and R type species:

Population growth is the change in a population over time, and can be quantified as the change in the number of individuals of any species in a population using "per unit time" for measurement. In biology, the term population growth is likely to refer to any known organism, but this article deals mostly with the application of the term to human populations in demography.

Human population Growth:

Exponential growth (including exponential decay) occurs when the growth rate of a mathematical function is proportional to the function's current value. In the case of a discrete domain of definition with equal intervals it is also called geometric growth or geometric decay (the function values form a geometric progression).

Population pyramid:

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external image RockCycleDiagram.gif
external image RockCycleDiagram.gif

An Example of Subduction:

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external image 6a0120a4cf1c59970b0120a929ffcb970b-800wi

More Information on Subduction: http://library.thinkquest.org/17457/platetectonics/5.php

Plate movements and examples:
external image plateboundaries.jpg
external image plateboundaries.jpg



Characteristics of each soil horizon:


Characteristics of sand


Characteristics of Silt


Characteristics of Gravel

(Use the second link to identify the type of gravel you are looking for)

Ways to Enhance soil quality:

Increase the supply of non-fuel resources:


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external image economy_chart.gif

Fossil Fuel Extraction methods:


Extraction of oil:
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Improve Energy Efficiency:

How Electricity can be generated from various resources:

Coal being converted into electricity:

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top three problems with soil degredation and how each can be slowed reduced or resolved


three commonly used fossil fuels and the advantages and disadvantages or using each


types of renewable energy


pros and cons of renewable energy


compare and contrast fossil fuel powered electricity and nuclear energy powered plants



arguments for decentralizing electricity production


non-renewable resources:


Nonrenewable sources are sources of energy that have a limited supply and will run out, and not be able to be used in the future: Oil, Coal, Northsea gas.


When you use petrol, gas, coal... basically anything you burn to produce heat and then turn this energy into electricity of mechanical energy (a car engine) you are using a raw material that is not going to be replaced. In fact petrol, gas and coal takes million of years to be naturally produced.

When you are burning wood (from trees), the tree grows again... eventually if you let it do so. This energy can be "kind of renewable" as long as another tree grows as fast in order to replace the one you cut.


Minerals like, iron ore and gold are nonrenewable, as are oil, coal, and other fossil fuels.
Well, renewable energy sources are wind and hydro. They will never run out. Nonrenewable energy sources are coal. Nonrenewable energy sources are fossil fuels. The similarities are that most of them have a relation with the sun. A nonrenewable energy source and a renewable energy source are similar in the way some of them are used to transform energy (you cannot create energy, it can only be transformed from one energy to another.) The similarities are few but there are many differences, most of the positives are on the renewable energy's side.

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Types of Pesticides
Pesticides are often referred to according to the type of pest they control. Another way to think about pesticides is to consider those that are [[http://www.epa.gov/opp00001/about/types.htm#chemical pesticides|chemical pesticides]] or are derived from a common source or production method. Other categories include biopesticides, antimicrobials, and pest control devices. The following are chemical pesticides:
Organophosphate Pesticides - These pesticides affect the nervous system by disrupting the enzyme that regulates acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter. Most organophosphates are insecticides. They were developed during the early 19th century, but their effects on insects, which are similar to their effects on humans, were discovered in 1932. Some are very poisonous (they were used in World War II as nerve agents). However, they usually are not persistent in the environment. Carbamate Pesticides affect the nervous system by disupting an enzyme that regulates acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter. The enzyme effects are usually reversible. There are several subgroups within the carbamates. Organochlorine Insecticides were commonly used in the past, but many have been removed from the market due to their health and environmental effects and their persistence (e.g. DDT and chlordane). Pyrethroid Pesticides** were developed as a synthetic version of the naturally occurring pesticide pyrethrin, which is found in chrysanthemums. They have been modified to increase their stability in the environment. Some synthetic pyrethroids are toxic to the nervous system. (EPA).

NYC waste composition pie chart
NYC waste composition pie chart

NYC waste composition pie chart

Notes: "Appliances/Electronics" includes metal appliances that are accepted for recycling under NYC's current program. "Glass" includes a small amount of plate or other non-container glass not accepted for recycling under NYC's current program. "Organics" includes food, yard, diapers/feminine hygiene, textiles, and some wood waste. It does not include C&D wood waste. "Other Paper" refers to tissues, napkins, laminated papers, or other papers not accepted for paper recycling under NYC's current program. "Other Plastic " includes plastic containers other than #1/#2 bottles and jugs, as well as plastics bags, wraps, and a wide range of non-recyclable plastic products. Further details on each category can be found in the WCS Results.
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Toxicity hazards in developed nations

Due to a globalized economy, developing countries are trying to cope with thousands of hazardous industrial chemicals they did not invent and that they have little capacity to regulate adequately. Although the chemicals have a range of important economic uses, Bhopal shows the Faustian bargain they often represent.

Gains associated with pesticide use include:

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1. Economics of pesticide production:$50 billion dollar business - about 40% is exported to other countries.
2. It has been estimated that millions of lives have been saved from death through malaria, yellow fever, sleeping sickness, Black plague and typhoid

3. With respect to agriculture- 35% lost before cropping and 20% post with pesticides ; without pesticide another 8% of additional damage would occur.
The psychological damage ( non perfect fruit and vegetables) would be even greater- 20-90%
4. Forestry - millions of acres have been sprayed; Spruce budworm and gypsy moth. some contend however that these insects cycle normally and would decrease without the use of pesticides.

Cons associated with pesticide use:

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1. Genetic resistance - every year the number of resistant species evolving increases
Today, nearly 275 weeds and more than 500 insects are resistant to at least one pesticide. That's more than five times the amount in 1950. And farmers lose more crops to pests today than they did in the 1940s.
2. Most chemical pesticides are nonspecific - effect a large number of species, pest and non-pest
3. Pesticides treadmill: from 1940 --> 1984 crop loss has increased from 7 --> 13% while pesticide use increased 12X. Why? with spraying we have killed the predators of the pests, and once the pest species is released from natural controls ( both no predation and no competition) their populations escalate!
4. With aerial application, only 10% reaches the crop and only 0.1%-5% reaches the targeted pest.
5. Pesticide use has threatened and continues to impact wildlife negatively.
6. Each year WHO estimates 1-5 million people have acute poisoning and die. In the US, 20,000 are estimated to suffer from some form of pesticide poisoning.


Frame theory and social-constructionist concepts are used to explain how local, environmental NIMBY (not-in-my-backyard) groups expand their narrow, reactive goals. NIMBYs may expand their goals by becoming "proactive" in orientation, i.e., initiating broader environmental programs that are new to the community. They can also expand to "watchdog" goals by actively monitoring every environmentally threatening plan. Using interview and survey data collected from leaders and members (N = 113) of six environmental NIMBY groups, fixed-goal NIMBYs are compared with ones that became proactive or watchdog in orientation. It is proposed that activists' rhetorical ability to take "ownership of a social problem" away from local and state authorities causes their groups to become "watchdog" or "proactive" in orientation. Ownership solidifies diagnostic, prognostic and motivational framing, thereby making expanded or future action more likely. Activists "own" a diagnosis by claiming to be experts on broader environmental problems. They "own" a prognosis by implementing their own solutions. They "own" a motivation frame by taking the burden of responsibility to act on future diagnoses and prognoses. Ownership creates rhetorical opportunities for local NIMBY groups to expand their goals by providing activists an independent, moral language to address environmental problems.


the degree to which something is poisonous

  • perniciousness: grave harmfulness or deadliness
  • Toxicity is the degree to which a substance is able to damage an exposed organism. Toxicity can refer to the effect on a whole organism, such as an animal, bacterium, or plant, as well as the effect on a substructure of the organism, such as a cell (cytotoxicity) or an organ (organotoxicity ...

Simple Measures of Toxicity

Some simple measures of toxicity use bioassays to measure death rates in order to quantify the effect of the toxin. Such measures are commonly known as LD50 and LC50. The LD50 is defined as the lethal dose at which 50% of the population if killed in a given period of time; an LC50 is the lethal concentration required to kill 50% of the population. The LC50 is a measure, e.g. in mg/l, of the concentration of the toxin whereas a dose is a more general term (need not be a concentration but may be a specific temperature, etc.). These bioassays involve subjecting several replicate groups of individuals to a range of concentrations (or doses) of a toxic compound and measuring the mortality after a defined time interval, e.g. 24 hours, 1 week, 1 month, etc. The data are then plotted and the LC50 is interpolated from the graph.http://life.bio.sunysb.edu/marinebio/fc.6.toxicity.measures.html


With the establishment of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1970, several other laws and regulations were enacted or strengthened. The intention of these laws was to control the release of chemicals in the air, water and terrestrial environments, and direct remediation or cleaning up of those chemicals already released. While still regulating release or cleanup on an individual chemical basis, these laws are also designed to evaluate the impact of all toxic chemicals released on health and environment. http://www.eoearth.org/article/Regulation_of_toxic_chemicals

A sustainable society is one that can progress without catastrophic setbacks in the foreseeable future.

Agency and laws
Congress authorizes certain government agencies - including EPA - to create regulations. Regulations set specific requirements about what is legal and what isn't. For example, a regulation issued by EPA to implement a law called the "Clean Air Act" might explain what levels of a pollutant - such as sulfur dioxide - are safe. EPA's site provides basic information about how we write our regulations. Moreover, Regulations.gov enables you to search, view, and comment on regulations, topic-by-topic, that are being proposed from all federal agencies.

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1. Name five main factors that limit life in water. Describe each using facts and examples.
2. Using the appropriate terms for each body of water, explain how oceans and lakes are divided into different life zones. What are the vertical and horizontal life zones based upon?
3. Compare and contrast the biotic and abiotic factors of oligotrophic and eutrophic lakes. Describe the biotic and abiotic changes that would occur in a lake that goes from being oligotrophic to eutrophic. Describe where you would expect to find an oligotrophic or a eutrophic lake. Can other bodies of water be oligotrophic or eutrophic?
4. Draw the hydrologic cycle and label each transition process and all below-ground processes.
external image hydrologic-rev.gif
external image hydrologic-rev.gif

5. Name four ways to increase the amount of fresh water available for use in an area. Rank them in order of practicality and environmental damage.
6. Describe three pros and three cons of building dams on existing waterways. Descrive two pros and two cons of constructing canals.
7. Name two ways fresh water may become saltier over time. Describe three solutions to reduce salinity or maintain low levels of salinity over time.
8. Describe three methods used to reduce water consumption and waste in each of the following situations: agriculture, industry and residences.
9. Name five categories of water pollution. Name an example pollutant and its source for each category listed.
10. How is groundwater polluted? How can it be cleaned?
11. Give two examples of non-point source pollution and two examples of point source pollution. Which type of pollution is harder to control?
12. Name five pollutants that are regularly dumped into the oceans.
13. Draw the process of sewage treatment. Describe what occurs in each step. Label each step primary, secondary, or tertiary.
Schematic of a Wastewater **Treatment Plant**